Emerging Public Diplomacy

Blog Post By: Caitlin Dobson

On a global scale and until recently, Indonesia has been known as a nation with “no enemies” and yet “no best friends.” As an emerging power and rising nation, Indonesia is continuously proving itself as a key player in economic terms as well as both global and regional influence, with public diplomacy at its core. Our group’s visit in March 2015 provided us with the opportunity to gain firsthand knowledge, perspective, and insight into what we consider an important and timely case study for the field of public diplomacy.

Please stay tuned as we plan to release our group research report on MONDAY, MAY 11. Our report will cover not only our observations and findings during our visit with the following organizations below, but also recommendations on how Indonesia and also the United States government might move forward in both considering and fulfilling its public diplomacy objectives.

Monday, March 9, 2015

United States Embassy Jakarta


Ambassador Robert O. Blake Jr. welcomes the group to the United States Embassy in Jakarta with a brief overview of the U.S. government’s current mission and public diplomacy objectives within Indonesia.


Monday, March 9, 2015

@America Cultural Center


U.S. Embassy Cultural Attaché Officer Deborah Lynn and U.S. Embassy Information Officer John Johnson welcome the group to @America, the United States Government-funded, high-tech cultural center used to facilitate cultural programs, events, and exhibitions that promote American culture, located within Pacific Place Mall in Jakarta. The group explored the center and asked questions about how @America is being used in USG’s digital diplomacy efforts.



Monday, March 9, 2015



The group prepares to meet with staff members of KontraS, a grassroots human rights NGO operating within Jakarta. The group learned firsthand how KontraS is working to accomplish its objectives, serving as both an organization monitoring government actions but also a government ally offering its expertise in and commitment to human rights issues both within Indonesia and abroad.




Tuesday, March 10, 2015

Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs


The Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs welcomes the group with an overview of the public diplomacy missions and objectives of the Indonesian government, including a discussion of “Bottom Up Diplomacy” and “Down to Earth Diplomacy” as being at the core of the Indonesian government’s public diplomacy efforts.



Tuesday, March 10, 2015

Indonesian Ministry of Communication and Information Technology


The Indonesian Ministry of Communication and Information Technology welcomes the group in a discussion of Indonesia’s current digital diplomacy efforts, initiatives, and challenges.


Wednesday, March 11, 2015

International Organization for Migration Jakarta


The Counter Trafficking and Labour Migration unit of the International Organization for Migration Jakarta presents to the group, illustrating the department’s myriad of ongoing projects, partnerships, and accomplishments.


Wednesday, March 11, 2015

Indonesian Ministry of Religious Affairs


The Indonesian Ministry of Religious Affairs welcomes the group to a presentation and discussion of Indonesia’s current faith diplomacy efforts and promotion of Inter-Faith harmony.


Thursday, March 12, 2015

Institute for Peace and Democracy at Udayana University


Founders of the Institute for Peace and Democracy at Udayana University in Bali provide a warm welcome to the group for a candid discussion on democracy promotion and learning how the organization built itself from the ground up through relationship-building and partnerships.




The group takes a small hike through Uluwatu to watch a Kecak Dance performed at sunset during their stay in Bali. The group took part in a number of cultural activities throughout their time in Jakarta, Bali, and Ubud. Following the group research experience in Indonesia, some of the members traveled on their own over Spring Break to Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. (Left to Right: Michele Johnsen, Soraya Ahyaudin, Nashwah Akhtar, Caitlin Dobson, Maria Camila Portela, Fatana Temory, Danielle Saroyan, Rebecca Heyliger)

Gastrodiplomacy: Culture through Cuisine

Blog Post by: Nashwah Akhtar

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By eating our way throughout Southeast Asia, culinary experiences posted to our @gastrompd Instagram account, we found a great deal of globalization could be discovered though food. Cuisines and flavors throughout Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Korea, and Singapore were shared, transmitted, and exchanged between these countries and those neighboring. We enjoyed a taste of history and sociology through gastrodiplomacy, and our tastebuds didn’t complain, either.

A term and concept popularized by our very own Master of Public Diplomacy alumn Paul Rockower, this type of public diplomacy is used by many countries, as a way of communicating culture through food, to promote a country’s culture and generate cross-cultural understanding. As mentioned within his article “The State of Gastrodiplomacy,” written for the May 2014 Issue of Public Diplomacy Magazine, he states, “As such, gastrodiplomacy understands that you don’t win hearts and minds through rational information, but rather through indirect emotional connections. Therefore, a connection with audiences is made in tangible sensory interactions as a means of indirect public diplomacy via cultural connections. These ultimately help to shape long-term cultural perceptions in a manner that can be both more effective and more indirect than targeted strategic communications.”

We hope for this Instagram account to continue as a research tool used each year by future MPD Research groups, to highlight their culinary experience(s) throughout the world,  so that this type of cultural diplomacy might be shared and better understood.

Balinese Cultural Tourism

Blog Post by: Danielle Saroyan

Balinese culture is unique and impossible to fully capture in the few days we were in Bali, Indonesia. Balinese society is strongly influenced by Indian Chinese, and Hindu culture. This spiritual combination can be seen in the photo compilation below, is a snapshot of the cultural society that we were able to experience between March 12-14. The photos include a traditional Balinese home, religious diversity, art and design, rice irrigation fields, biodiversity on the island, and ceremonial dance.

Traditional Balinese Home

Our group had the opportunity to visit a traditional Balinese home, with grand entryways and multiple outdoor rooms spread out in one family compound. Buildings cannot be taller than a coconut tree, so rooms were spread out rather than built high. A traditional Balinese home consists of a collection of structures within an enclosed area, including bedrooms, guest rooms, a family shrine, living areas, and a kitchen space. The spaces, design, and purpose of each building directly relates to a spiritual meaning in a feng shui manner. For example, Balinese people follow Tri Hita Karana – the concept of harmony and balance of three elements: human, nature, and gods.

Bali House (1)

This particular traditional Balinese home is located in Ubud. The woman in the photo is sitting at the main bedroom situated in the middle of the complex, weaving together small containers to hold prayer offerings.

Religious Harmony

Indonesia is known for its Muslim majority, but that is not the case in Bali. About 85% of the people are Balinese Hindus; 12% are Muslim; and about 3% are Christian. Balinese Hinduism is a combination of local Bali beliefs, Indian Hinduism, and Buddhism. This religion consists of gods and demigods who are worshipped together with Buddhist heroes, the spirits of ancestors, indigenous agricultural deities, and sacred places. Bali has an estimated 20,000 puras (temples) and shrines, and is therefore known as the “Island of Thousand Puras” (“Islands of the Gods”). Balinese Hinduism focuses on the belief that gods and goddesses are present in all things and every element of nature possesses its own power, which reflects the power of the gods. For instance, a rock, tree, or woven cloth is a potential home for spirits whose energy can be directed for good or evil.

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Pictured here is a Hindu Temple located in Ubud. right beside a Christian Church, an Islamic Mosque, and a Catholic Church. This row of spiritual buildings demonstrates the harmony and accord between the various religions in Bali.

Art and Design

Bali is well known for artists who create handicrafts and fashion, including batik and ikat clothing, wooden carvings, stone carvings, painted art, and silverware. Individual villages are also known for each creating a single product, such as wind chimes or wooden furniture, which is exclusively from that area.

Art copy (1)

This is an example of Indonesian batik design. Batik is a hand-dyed cotton and silk garment with everyday patterns. As of 2009, UNESCO dedicated as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. The designs and colors express Indonesian creativity and spirituality. Arabic calligraphy, European bouquets, Chinese phoenixes, Japanese cherry blossoms, and Indian or Persian peacocks influence the wide variety of patterns and designs.

Rice and Paddy Fields 

Agriculture is considered the most common occupation in Bali, specifically with rice cultivation. Subak is the name of the water management or irrigation system for paddy fields in Bali, developed in the 9th century. The system consists of 5 terraced rice fields and water temples with its own rituals. The water temple rituals promote a harmonious relationship between people and their environment. Rice is seen as the gift of god, and the subak system is part of the temple culture in Bali. As of June 2012, subak was enlisted as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

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Monkeys Everywhere

There are two species of monkey in Bali: crab-eating macaque and Javan Langur.

  • The Crab-eating Macaque is known locally as “kera” and quite common around human settlements and temples. They are commonly found in three “monkey forest” temples, and sometimes kept as pets by locals.
  • The Javan langur, known locally as “lutung,” is rarer of the two. They are born an orange color, and as they grow into an adult their color darkens.
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Ubud Monkey Forest and Holy Spirit Temple. We observed and interacted with the kera monkeys, feeding them bananas.

Kecak Dance at Sunset

Balinese Hinduism is deeply interwoven with art and ritual. Balinese performing arts often portray stories from Hindu epics with heavy Balinese influences. Famous Balinese dances include pendet, legong, baris, topeng, barong, gong keybar, and kecak.

Kecek (1)

Kecak Dance performed at Uluwatu with a male chorus based on the Indian epic drama, Ramayana. The Kecak Dance, known as the Ramayana Monkey Chant, is a music drama performed at sunset.

Finding Shared Interests through Democracy

Blog Post by: Nashwah Akhtar


The USC MPD Research Group meets with the Institute for Peace and Democracy at Udayana University in Bali, Indonesia.

Our very last meeting of the trip scheduled in Bali, the Institute for Peace and Democracy (IDP) at Udayana University, was one of our absolute favorites; it was fascinating to hear their story of growth from a small closet-space of an office to what it is today—an institute that intersects academia, government, and the private sector to promote global democracy.

IDP Director Dr. Ketut Erawan and Ayu Wijaya, a staff member of the Institute, conversed with us about what democracy means to them—which was building trust, minimizing inequalities, and protection from capture. The organization’s goals are threefold: to create a space for media, policy, and research to share ideas, acting as a thinktank, and supporting the system of democratic processes.

The last goal was the most relevant to the field of public diplomacy, and to us as aspiring PD practitioners. Our hosts explained the use of Hard Power, Soft Power, and Smart Power was essential to the functioning of IDP. They also emphasized other factors of PD with which we were very familiar, listening and relationship building. They joked about using “dog diplomacy” with colleagues from Laos in helping them to build informal relationships abroad. Additionally, as Public Diplomacy students, we were pleased to see a system of evaluation that the Institute used to reflect and improve on certain academic, cultural, and exchange programs.

Amongst IDP’s many leadership initiatives, the annual Bali Democracy Forum stands out as the most prominent. Held every December in Bali, Indonesia, this forum promotes cooperation between democracies within Asia, and “aims to strengthen the capacity of democracy and democratic institutions through inter-state discussions.” There are 20 participating countries, each represented by its Secretary of State. We are curious to know how such programs, especially region-specific programs such as the Forum, can and has affected relationships between nations. Has the program been fruitful? Are there any areas of improvement? Can it be implemented in a similar fashion for other regions?

For us, the Institute for Peace and Democracy provided a prime example of intersecting fields of Public Diplomacy. It was an example of policymakers, civil societies, and academics collaborating for common interests- in this case, the pursuit of democracy.



Involving Religious Communities in Indonesia’s Public Diplomacy

Blog Post by: Soraya Ahyaudin


The USC MPD Research Group meets with the Indonesian Ministry of Religious Affairs in Jakarta.

Predominantly Muslim Indonesia has played a prominent role in pushing religion into the international public domain in recent years by taking many of the dialogue initiatives at regional and international levels. Although it is the world’s most populous Muslim nation, Islam, however, is not a state religion. The founders of modern Indonesia first proclaimed the philosophical basis of the Indonesian state, the Pancasila, and the religious pluralism that is enshrined in the constitution is a key part of Indonesian identity and constitutional process. This was one of the key points that stood out during our visit at the Ministry of Religious Affairs in Jakarta.

The religionization of politics and the politicization of religion, especially in the current environment on the global war on terror, means that increasingly religion plays a role in diplomacy both as an opportunity for engagement and as a motivation inspiring actors. Religion, which until recently was regarded in much of the secular world in the West as essentially the private affair of individuals, is now intruding into the public arena, including the world of diplomacy. As a country with a pluralistic society and proud of its rich cultural and religious diversity, religious leaders play important roles in their communities in shaping attitudes and people’s understanding of the world around them. Concerns about interfaith relations grew with the polarization of the world along Samuel Huntington’s Clash of Civilization line, in the wake of the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States. While the tradition of interfaith dialogue has long existed in pluralistic Indonesia for decades, the government has taken the initiative to bring this tradition to the international level and, lo and behold, has found receptive audiences since 2002.

The involvement of religious communities in Indonesian public diplomacy is very dominant in interfaith dialogue program. This program is an integrated part of Indonesia’s Total Diplomacy, under the former Indonesian Foreign Affairs Minister, Hassan Wirajuda, which is practiced by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Wirajuda’s Total Diplomacy concept involved all components of society and is defined as a diplomacy that is more inclusive and comprehensive on every issue, which involves all nation state components. Engagement with the religious communities in interfaith dialogue is no longer exclusively under the purview of the Ministry of Religious Affairs, but a concerted effort together between both Ministry of Religious Affairs and Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The interfaith dialogue promotes values of pluralism, multiculturalism and religious harmony in Indonesia. Islam in Indonesia was developed through a process that still upheld the local values and local wisdom, or what is called the “indigenization of Islam”. This particular process makes Islam in Indonesia unique from the practice of it in other regions. Considering the fact that Indonesia is one of the world’s most diverse countries, diversity is the central feature of Indonesian culture with 300 ethnic groups; 750 languages and dialects the importance of diversity is embedded in the nation’s motto: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, which translates to Unity in Diversity. Although the country is predominantly Muslim, the government officially recognizes six religions – Islam, Christian Protestants, Roman Catholics, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.

The rise of globalization, multi-track diplomacy and terrorism as a threat for world peace and security has influenced the Indonesian government to engage religious communities in interfaith dialogue program in Indonesian public diplomacy. Every country cannot ignore the globalization phenomenon and its impact on the social, political, and cultural life of its people. In an age of globalization, religion has become an important issue of global politics. The worldwide resurgence of religion has influenced changes in the political life. In this respect, the complex interdependence between religion and globalization is reflected in how the role of religious actors as a non-state actor in diplomacy is more important. This can be seen in Indonesia’s involvement and engagement with religious actors from religious communities in its public diplomacy. In a country where religion is important, the multi-track diplomacy with the focus on peace making through faith in action embodies Indonesian faith diplomacy efforts and at its core is the interfaith dialogue programs.

The interfaith dialogue program in Indonesian faith diplomacy emphasizes the important role of religious communities in diplomacy. In the past, impact of individual and non-governmental organizations in international affairs might not be as impactful as the states, intergovernmental organizations or multinational corporations. This is not true in the present situation. In the context of the Indonesian religious community, the role of Muhammadiyah, Nahdlatul Ulama, Bishop Conference of Indonesia, Communion of Churches in Indonesia in interfaith activities perform the role of (religious) NGO and religious leader, as an individual, has increased their role in international relations.

Indonesia continues to promote inter-cultural and inter-religious dialogue to create tolerance, mutual understanding and respect among religious community. As a country with a pluralistic society and proud of its rich cultural and religious diversity, Indonesia continues to promote inter-cultural and inter-religious dialogue to create tolerance, mutual understanding and respect among religious community. The role of religion and religious affairs in influencing its foreign policy is becoming more prominent. At the heart of it, the Indonesian government’s effort to include religious communities in its foreign policy strategy, specifically the interfaith dialogue in diplomacy, is a soft power package where it can brand itself as a country practicing moderate Islam while promoting the moderate groups in counter terrorism to action. If anything else, it could be seen as “hip” to befriend Indonesia: A good friend of the West, the East, the Muslims and a country cognizant of the need for cultural harmony, environmental sustainability and social inclusiveness. The world sees Indonesia in a positive light. World leaders like Obama, Cameron, Merkel, Erdogan, Ferdinand de Kirchner, Abe, and Lee perceive Indonesia as a partner. Indonesia’s influence is spreading to the Americas, Europe, Africa and Central Asia. In fact, countries large and small have received the same respect from Indonesia as partners for global stability, peace and prosperity. Hence, it becomes even more critical for Indonesia to take advantage of this positive momentum, standing at the right time in history to play a global role as Indonesia approaches its centenary.

International Organization for Migration Indonesia: Listening is Key

Blog Post by: Caitlin Dobson


The USC MPD Research Group meets with the Counter-Trafficking and Labour Migration Department of the International Organization of Migration Indonesia office in Jakarta.

There is a difference between hearing and listening. Even within the field of public diplomacy there is a difference between listening and active listening. Much of our research experience thus far has been to observe how well each organization with which we meet are hearing partners, communities, publics and other governments. As one of the key components to effective public diplomacy, it seems the International Organization for Migration in Jakarta is a prime example of what it means to truly listen.

IOM is an intergovernmental organization funded by the Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, whose main objective is to promote order in migration. A massive transit country for migrants, IOM Indonesia is one of the overall organization’s top priorities. Our visit with IOM Jakarta was time well-spent learning from the Human Trafficking and Labour Migration department about current projects and programs they have developed. Everything from regions of the world with which they work to digital engagement to education through human trafficking-themed comic books and documentaries, IOM seems at first glance to be practicing effective public diplomacy in most aspects.

What stood out most was how in tune they are with local communities and current issues with which they are dealing, especially partnerships formed with grassroots organizations and local NGOs. Through these partnerships they mentioned a number of ways in which they are utilizing their relationships to gain even more expertise and understanding on the ground. As an organization as big and multi-faceted as IOM, with more than 480 field locations worldwide, the importance of partnerships becomes even more vital in order to listen from the bottom up, to obtain and maintain the diverse wealth of knowledge for an organization such as IOM, and thus be more engaged and uphold effective public diplomacy.

Human trafficking within and outside of Indonesia is a convoluted and complex issue in and of itself, and IOM appears to be doing an incredible job in terms of its structure and individualized programs, with a multi-faceted approach. We look forward to implementing IOM Indonesia as a case study demonstrating effective strategies in partnership development within our final research report. Through this meeting we saw just how important and effective strengthened relationships between like-minded organizations really can be. Thanks to organizations like IOM, victims of human trafficking throughout the world really are being helped and heard.